Target Specification

Switch

Example

Description

 

nmap 192.168.1.1

Scan a single IP

 

nmap 192.168.1.1 192.168.2.1

Scan specific IPs

 

nmap 192.168.1.1-254

Scan a range

 

nmap scanme.nmap.org

Scan a domain

 

nmap 192.168.1.0/24

Scan using CIDR notation

-iL

nmap -iL targets.txt

Scan targets from a file

-iR

nmap -iR 100

Scan 100 random hosts

–exclude

nmap –exclude 192.168.1.1

Exclude listed hosts

Scan Techniques

Switch

Example

Description

-sS

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sS

TCP SYN port scan (Default)

-sT

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sT

TCP connect port scan
(Default without root privilege)

-sU

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sU

UDP port scan

-sA

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sA

TCP ACK port scan

-sW

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sW

TCP Window port scan

-sM

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sM

TCP Maimon port scan

Host Discovery

Switch

Example

Description

-sL

nmap 192.168.1.1-3 -sL

No Scan. List targets only

-sn

nmap 192.168.1.1/24 -sn

Disable port scanning. Host discovery only.

-Pn

nmap 192.168.1.1-5 -Pn

Disable host discovery. Port scan only.

-PS

nmap 192.168.1.1-5 -PS22-25,80

TCP SYN discovery on port x.

Port 80 by default

-PA

nmap 192.168.1.1-5 -PA22-25,80

TCP ACK discovery on port x.

Port 80 by default

-PU

nmap 192.168.1.1-5 -PU53

UDP discovery on port x.

Port 40125 by default

-PR

nmap 192.168.1.1-1/24 -PR

ARP discovery on local network

-n

nmap 192.168.1.1 -n

Never do DNS resolution

Port Specification

Switch

Example

Description

-p

nmap 192.168.1.1 -p 21

Port scan for port x

-p

nmap 192.168.1.1 -p 21-100

Port range

-p

nmap 192.168.1.1 -p U:53,T:21-25,80

Port scan multiple TCP and UDP ports

-p-

nmap 192.168.1.1 -p-

Port scan all ports

-p

nmap 192.168.1.1 -p http,https

Port scan from service name

-F

nmap 192.168.1.1 -F

Fast port scan (100 ports)

–top-ports

nmap 192.168.1.1 –top-ports 2000

Port scan the top x ports

-p-65535

nmap 192.168.1.1 -p-65535

Leaving off initial port in range 
makes the scan start at port 1

-p0-

nmap 192.168.1.1 -p0-

Leaving off end port in range

makes the scan go through to port 65535

Service and Version Detection

Switch

Example

Description

-sV

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sV

Attempts to determine the version of the service running on port

-sV –version-intensity

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sV –version-intensity 8

Intensity level 0 to 9. Higher number increases possibility of correctness

-sV –version-light

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sV –version-light

Enable light mode. Lower possibility of correctness. Faster

-sV –version-all

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sV –version-all

Enable intensity level 9. Higher possibility of correctness. Slower

-A

nmap 192.168.1.1 -A

Enables OS detection, version detection, script scanning, and traceroute

OS Detection

Switch

Example

Description

-O

nmap 192.168.1.1 -O

Remote OS detection using TCP/IP 
stack fingerprinting

-O –osscan-limit

nmap 192.168.1.1 -O –osscan-limit

If at least one open and one closed 
TCP port are not found it will not try 
OS detection against host

-O –osscan-guess

nmap 192.168.1.1 -O –osscan-guess

Makes Nmap guess more aggressively

-O –max-os-tries

nmap 192.168.1.1 -O –max-os-tries 1

Set the maximum number x of OS 
detection tries against a target

-A

nmap 192.168.1.1 -A

Enables OS detection, version detection, script scanning, and traceroute

Timing and Performance

Switch

Example

Description

-T0

nmap 192.168.1.1 -T0

Paranoid (0) Intrusion Detection 
System evasion

-T1

nmap 192.168.1.1 -T1

Sneaky (1) Intrusion Detection System 
evasion

-T2

nmap 192.168.1.1 -T2

Polite (2) slows down the scan to use 
less bandwidth and use less target 
machine resources

-T3

nmap 192.168.1.1 -T3

Normal (3) which is default speed

-T4

nmap 192.168.1.1 -T4

Aggressive (4) speeds scans; assumes 
you are on a reasonably fast and 
reliable network

-T5

nmap 192.168.1.1 -T5

Insane (5) speeds scan; assumes you 
are on an extraordinarily fast network

   

Switch

Example input

Description

–host-timeout <time>

1s; 4m; 2h

Give up on target after this long

–min-rtt-timeout/max-rtt-timeout/initial-rtt-timeout <time>

1s; 4m; 2h

Specifies probe round trip time

–min-hostgroup/max-hostgroup <size<size>

50; 1024

Parallel host scan group 
sizes

–min-parallelism/max-parallelism <numprobes>

10; 1

Probe parallelization

–scan-delay/–max-scan-delay <time>

20ms; 2s; 4m; 5h

Adjust delay between probes

–max-retries <tries>

3

Specify the maximum number 
of port scan probe retransmissions

–min-rate <number>

100

Send packets no slower than <numberr> per second

–max-rate <number>

100

Send packets no faster than <number> per second

NSE Scripts

Switch

Example

Description

-sC

nmap 192.168.1.1 -sC

Scan with default NSE scripts. Considered useful for discovery and safe

–script default

nmap 192.168.1.1 –script default

Scan with default NSE scripts. Considered useful for discovery and safe

–script

nmap 192.168.1.1 –script=banner

Scan with a single script. Example banner

–script

nmap 192.168.1.1 –script=http*

Scan with a wildcard. Example http

–script

nmap 192.168.1.1 –script=http,banner

Scan with two scripts. Example http and banner

–script

nmap 192.168.1.1 –script “not intrusive”

Scan default, but remove intrusive scripts

–script-args

nmap –script snmp-sysdescr –script-args snmpcommunity=admin 192.168.1.1

NSE script with arguments

Useful NSE Script Examples

Command

Description

nmap -Pn –script=http-sitemap-generator scanme.nmap.org

http site map generator

nmap -n -Pn -p 80 –open -sV -vvv –script banner,http-title -iR 1000

Fast search for random web servers

nmap -Pn –script=dns-brute domain.com

Brute forces DNS hostnames guessing subdomains

nmap -n -Pn -vv -O -sV –script smb-enum*,smb-ls,smb-mbenum,smb-os-discovery,smb-s*,smb-vuln*,smbv2* -vv 192.168.1.1

Safe SMB scripts to run

nmap –script whois* domain.com

Whois query

nmap -p80 –script http-unsafe-output-escaping scanme.nmap.org

Detect cross site scripting vulnerabilities

nmap -p80 –script http-sql-injection scanme.nmap.org

Check for SQL injections

Firewall / IDS Evasion and Spoofing

Switch

Example

Description

-f

nmap 192.168.1.1 -f

Requested scan (including ping scans) use tiny fragmented IP packets. Harder for packet filters

–mtu

nmap 192.168.1.1 –mtu 32

Set your own offset size

-D

nmap -D 192.168.1.101,192.168.1.102,
192.168.1.103,192.168.1.23 192.168.1.1

Send scans from spoofed IPs

-D

nmap -D decoy-ip1,decoy-ip2,your-own-ip,decoy-ip3,decoy-ip4 remote-host-ip

Above example explained

-S

nmap -S www.microsoft.com www.facebook.com

Scan Facebook from Microsoft (-e eth0 -Pn may be required)

-g

nmap -g 53 192.168.1.1

Use given source port number

–proxies

nmap –proxies http://192.168.1.1:8080, http://192.168.1.2:8080 192.168.1.1

Relay connections through HTTP/SOCKS4 proxies

–data-length

nmap –data-length 200 192.168.1.1

Appends random data to sent packets

Example IDS Evasion command

nmap -f -t 0 -n -Pn –data-length 200 -D 192.168.1.101,192.168.1.102,192.168.1.103,192.168.1.23 192.168.1.1

Output

Switch

Example

Description

-oN

nmap 192.168.1.1 -oN normal.file

Normal output to the file normal.file

-oX

nmap 192.168.1.1 -oX xml.file

XML output to the file xml.file

-oG

nmap 192.168.1.1 -oG grep.file

Grepable output to the file grep.file

-oA

nmap 192.168.1.1 -oA results

Output in the three major formats at once

-oG –

nmap 192.168.1.1 -oG –

Grepable output to screen. -oN -, -oX – also usable

–append-output

nmap 192.168.1.1 -oN file.file –append-output

Append a scan to a previous scan file

-v

nmap 192.168.1.1 -v

Increase the verbosity level (use -vv or more for greater effect)

-d

nmap 192.168.1.1 -d

Increase debugging level (use -dd or more for greater effect)

–reason

nmap 192.168.1.1 –reason

Display the reason a port is in a particular state, same output as -vv

–open

nmap 192.168.1.1 –open

Only show open (or possibly open) ports

–packet-trace

nmap 192.168.1.1 -T4 –packet-trace

Show all packets sent and received

–iflist

nmap –iflist

Shows the host interfaces and routes

–resume

nmap –resume results.file

Resume a scan

Helpful Nmap Output examples

Command

Description

nmap -p80 -sV -oG – –open 192.168.1.1/24 | grep open

Scan for web servers and grep to show which IPs are running web servers

nmap -iR 10 -n -oX out.xml | grep “Nmap” | cut -d ” ” -f5 > live-hosts.txt

Generate a list of the IPs of live hosts

nmap -iR 10 -n -oX out2.xml | grep “Nmap” | cut -d ” ” -f5 >> live-hosts.txt

Append IP to the list of live hosts

ndiff scanl.xml scan2.xml

Compare output from nmap using the ndif

xsltproc nmap.xml -o nmap.html

Convert nmap xml files to html files

grep ” open ” results.nmap | sed -r ‘s/ +/ /g’ | sort | uniq -c | sort -rn | less

Reverse sorted list of how often ports turn up

Miscellaneous Options

Switch

Example

Description

-6

nmap -6 2607:f0d0:1002:51::4

Enable IPv6 scanning

-h

nmap -h

nmap help screen

Other Useful Nmap Commands

Command

Description

nmap -iR 10 -PS22-25,80,113,1050,35000 -v -sn

Discovery only on ports x, no port scan

nmap 192.168.1.1-1/24 -PR -sn -vv

Arp discovery only on local network, no port scan

nmap -iR 10 -sn -traceroute

Traceroute to random targets, no port scan

nmap 192.168.1.1-50 -sL –dns-server 192.168.1.1

Query the Internal DNS for hosts, list targets only

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